electromagnetic properties railway ballast research

  • Benchmarking large scale GPR experiments on railway ballast

     · The overall aim of this project was to relate ground penetrating radar (GPR) to a ballast fouling index (FI). Laboratory research aimed at characterising the electromagnetic properties has enabled researchers worldwide to determine ballast thickness using impulse ground penetrating radar (GPR) – based upon derived values of the relative electrical permittivity or dielectric constant.

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  • Railroad Ballast Evaluation Using Ground-Penetrating Radar

    by the use of GPR, various research studies have been conducted to optimize the GPR equipment setup and develop innovative data-processing and analysis techniques. Jack and Jackson used and MHz GPR antennae to provide the image attributes of the ballast and subgrade (1). A fixed electromagnetic (EM) velocity

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  • Assessment of layer thickness and uniformity in railway ...

    radiation of very short electromagnetic impulses (< 10 ns) that are reflected at interfaces of materials with different dielectric properties (Figure 1). Figure 1 – Working principle of georadar in reflection mode and resultant radargram. Assessment of layer thickness and uniformity in railway embankments with Ground Penetrating Radar

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  • Laboratory investigations for the electromagnetic ...

    In this work a numerical model capable to predict the electromagnetic response of railway ballast aggregates under different physical conditions has been calibrated and validated by a simulation ...

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  • -railway ballast suppliersindonesia-

    Rail ballast: conclusions from a historical perspective P. Claisse and C. Calla Although it is now universally accepted that good-quality hard angular stone of nominal size 40 50 mm is the best material for ballast, historically track has been for longer on non-stone ballast than on stone ballast. Even the stone ballast speci ed up until the ...

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  • Railroad Ballast Load Ranking Classification | Semantic ...

    An investigation into the permanent deformation and degradation ranking (i.e., load ranking) of railroad ballast subject to laboratory repeated loading at a stress level comparable with those below North American heavy freight axle loads is reported. Some field data are also presented. Plastic deformations, change in grading, and production of fines are statistically linearly correlated with ...

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  • Detection of Fouling in Ballast by Electromagnetic Surveying

    Detection of Fouling in Ballast by Electromagnetic Surveying ... railway ballast breaks and deteriorates under the cyclic and loads from trains. Throughout this deterioration process, ballast properties deviate from the specifications and form ‘fouled ballast’. Fouling starts with internal degradation of the ballast, and continues ...

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  • Report # MATC-KU: 465 Final Report

    Properties of Fouled Railroad Ballast (Phase 1) Report # MATC-KU: 465 Final Report Robert Parsons Ph.D., P.E. Professor Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering University of Kansas AJ Rahman Graduate Research Assistant Jie Han, Ph.D., P.E. Professor 2012 A Cooperative Research Project sponsored by the

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  • Settlement Response of Fibre Reinforced Railway Ballast

    Settlement Response of Fibre Reinforced Railway Ballast E. Ferro*, O. Ajayi, L. Le Pen, A. Zervos, and W. Powrie. Infrastructure Research Group, University of Southampton, United Kingdom *[email protected] Abstract Ballasted track is the prevalent track form worldwide and with good design and maintenance can

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  • electromagnetic properties railway ballast research

    electromagnetic properties railway ballast research. electromagnetic properties railway ballast research However, over time, ballast is fouled by the breakdown of ballast aggregate and/or the infiltration of fines, which undermine the ballast functions and affect the railroad track structural capacity

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  • Electromagnetic Properties Railway Ballast Research

    electromagnetic properties railway ballast research. electromagnetic properties railway ballast research. electromagnetic properties railway ballast research However, over time, ballast is fouled by the breakdown of ballast aggregate and/or the infiltration of fines, which undermine the ballast functions and affect the railroad track structural ...

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  • Characterization of Rail Track Ballast Fouling Using ...

    1 Summary Sheet Centre for infrastructure, Sustainable Transport and Urban Planning Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560 012 1. Title of the Project: CHARACTERIZATION OF RAIL TRACK BALLAST FOULING USING GROUND PENETRATION RADAR AND FIELD

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  • ballast protection against sand storm in railway

    Railway Ballast - Standards Search | Engineering360. · The railway track network plays an essential role in the transportation infrastructure worldwide. A ballasted railroad is commonly used for several reasons, including economic, rapid drainage and ease of maintenance. Given the increasing demand for trains to carry heavier loads,...

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  • ballast protection against sand storm in railway

    ballast protection against sand storm in railway. Home / ballast protection against sand storm in railway; The Refugee Jail Deep in the Heart of Texas. While families fleeing the Middle East continue to dominate the news, the U.S. government has quietly built a gargantuan detention center for Central American migrants. electromagnetic ...

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  • Railroad Ballast Testing and Properties

    discussed field testing of railway ballast and the second session discussed laboratory testing of railway ballast. The symposium ended with a panel discussion moderated by Professor Timothy D. Stark, which developed a list of Ballast Research and Test Method Needs. …

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  • Characterisation of ballast materials in trackbed using ...

    This paper conducts an investigation of the GPR scattering response to the railway ballast aggregate layer by providing a comprehensive study of factors affecting the radar signal including; ballast grading (particle size distribution), particle shape, void size and the electromagnetic properties of the ballast (dielectric, conductivity ...

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  • Automatic Classification of Ground-Penetrating-Radar ...

    Fig. 3. Three traces from the railway data set. From top to bottom, they are from 50% clay ballast, clean ballast, and 50% coal ballast, respectively. (a) Time-domain waveforms. (b) Frequency magnitude spectra. delivers it to the transmitting antenna T x, which radiates an electromagnetic wave. Once the electromagnetic wave hits an

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  • Evaluating the Influence of Breakdown Fouling and Moisture ...

    A complete study was performed to develop correlations between electromagnetic and mechanical properties of ballast. These correla tions can be used to predict the deformation properties of ballast and also its dynamic behavior under heavy axle load in …

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  • Evaluating the sensitivity of low-frequency ground ...

    It was through the electromagnetic properties that the volumetric amount of fines and moisture present within the ballast and the type of subballast material were altered. The ground-penetrating radar response of each model was simulated using a finite-difference time-domain solver for Maxwell’s equations (gprMax).

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  • (PDF) Development of a time--frequency approach to ...

    Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Skip to main content ... M.R., et al., 2001. Electromagnetic properties of railway frequency spectrum with depth as well as locate and ballast. NDT&E International Journal, 34 (5), 305– 311. ... Railway ballast fouling Project DTFR D . The contents of this paper ...

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  • Electromagnetism - Wikipedia

    Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, and it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as ...

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  • Automatic Classification of Ground-Penetrating-Radar ...

    Fig. 3. Three traces from the railway data set. From top to bottom, they are from 50% clay ballast, clean ballast, and 50% coal ballast, respectively. (a) Time-domain waveforms. (b) Frequency magnitude spectra. delivers it to the transmitting antenna T x, which radiates an electromagnetic wave. Once the electromagnetic wave hits an

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  • Railgun - Wikipedia

    In March 2018, it was reported that China confirmed it had begun testing its electromagnetic rail gun at sea. India. In November 2017, India's Defence Research and Development Organisation carried out a successful test of an electromagnetic railgun. A 12 mm square bore version was test fired and tests of a 30 mm version are planned.

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  • Geotechnical properties of ballast and ... - Research Online

    Research Online is the open access institutional repository for the University of Wollongong. For further information contact the UOW Library: [email protected] Publication Details This article was originally published as Indraratna, B, Khabbaz, H, Salim, W and Christie, D, Geotechnical Properties of Ballast …

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  • Railroad Ballast Load Ranking Classification | Semantic ...

    An investigation into the permanent deformation and degradation ranking (i.e., load ranking) of railroad ballast subject to laboratory repeated loading at a stress level comparable with those below North American heavy freight axle loads is reported. Some field data are also presented. Plastic deformations, change in grading, and production of fines are statistically linearly correlated with ...

    Get More
  • Research on Railroad Ballast Specification and Evaluation

    Research on Railroad Ballast Specification and Evaluation GERALD P. RAYMOND ... rock, slag, and gravel railway ballast sources are summarized in this paper. Comments are included about the new Canadian Pacific Rail ballast specif i­ ... These two properties, texture and composition, are …

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  • Electromagnetic Properties Railway Ballast Research

    electromagnetic properties railway ballast research. electromagnetic properties railway ballast research. electromagnetic properties railway ballast research However, over time, ballast is fouled by the breakdown of ballast aggregate and/or the infiltration of fines, which undermine the ballast functions and affect the railroad track structural ...

    Get More
  • Non-Destructive Evaluation of Railway Track Using Ground ...

    Non-Destructive Evaluation of Railway Track Using Ground Penetrating Radar SUMMARY The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development sponsored a study under the Track and Structures Program for evaluating railway track conditions using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The track conditions targeted by the GPR research ...

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  • Benchmarking large scale GPR experiments on railway ballast

     · The overall aim of this project was to relate ground penetrating radar (GPR) to a ballast fouling index (FI). Laboratory research aimed at characterising the electromagnetic properties has enabled researchers worldwide to determine ballast thickness using impulse ground penetrating radar (GPR) – based upon derived values of the relative electrical permittivity or dielectric constant.

    Get More
  • electromagnetic properties railway ballast research

    electromagnetic properties railway ballast research. electromagnetic properties railway ballast research. Electromagnetic Properties Railway Ballast Research. electromagnetic properties railway ballast research CMS development of a time frequency approach to quantify railroad . this article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes .. vertical fastening

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  • Dynamic properties of railway track and ... - Research Online

    dynamic stresses. For example, a rail vibration could lead to defects in rails or wheels. The track vibrations can cause the crack damage in railway sleepers or fasteners, or even the breakage of ballast support. Therefore, the identification of dynamic properties of railway track and its

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  • (PDF) Railway Track Condition Assessment at Network Level ...

    Nevertheless, the application of GPR to assess the ballast condition is a challenging task because the material electromagnetic properties are sensitive to both the ballast grading and water content.

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